I’ve blogged previously on pre-reading strategies. Here are some more.
- Ask students to make predictions about the likely content of a text by examining
– the title (eg of a newspaper report, magazine article, short story, poem, film)
– elements of the cover such as font size and style and photographs (eg of a book, magazine or video) You could ask students to explain the reasons for their wide reading choice, based on an examination of the book cover.
– diagrams and captions (in instructional or informative text selected from a subject area other than English)
– photographs (accompanying feature articles, news reports, web pages)
– headlines (of newspaper or magazine articles)
– headings (in informative or instructional brochures and on web pages)
- Brainstorm (use an online tool such as Bubbl.us) what students already know about the topic of, for example, a non-fiction text. As a class, draw up a list of questions that the text might be able to answer, thus providing a focus for their meaning.
- Ask students to predict likely key terms for an text on a given topic eg an article from a sporting magazine or a website. Discuss the meaning of these terms.
- Ask students to make hypotheses about the author’s purpose in writing a particular text eg to present information, to entertain, to persuade.
- Discuss with students the likely audience for a text. How might a knowledge of that audience influence the content and the language used by the author?
- Analyse linguistic structures and features of a variety of diagrams, especially those to be found in nonfiction books and online, to ensure students understand the conventions involved in constructing and reading visual representations. (For example, graphs of various kinds, flow charts and infographics.)
- Discuss the ways in which students will need to approach the reading of a text, depending on the purpose in reading eg
– read very carefully in order to remember the content for later recall;
– read for pleasure, not worrying about how much is remembered;
– skim a text in order to gain a general impression of what it is about and to decide whether or not it will be useful for a given purpose eg providing information for a research project
– scan a text in order to find specific information, perhaps in response to comprehension questions
Encourage students to articulate why they are reading and provide them with opportunities to read for a variety of purposes.